Glossary

annotation
The assignment of semantic role tags to syntactic constituents.

Annotation database
The part of the FrameNet database that holds the annotated sentences.

complement (comp)
A grammatical function used for various oblique constituents, e.g. the prepositional phrase in The robbers tied his feet together with a black cord.

constructional null instantiation (CNI)
An FE that is missing because the grammar of the sentence allows or requires an omission (e.g. the subject of an imperative, the agent of a passive verb).

core
Frame elements that are essential to the meaning of a frame are called "core" FEs (e.g Speaker in frames connected with communication); expressions of time, place and manner are generally not core FEs.

definite null instantiation (DNI)
An FE that is missing from a sentence, but whose identity is understood from the context, e.g. Stephanie contributed $20, where RECIPIENT, a charitable organization, is the missing FE.

external (ext)
a grammatical function used for the subject of finite verbs, the subject (or object) of certain control or governing verbs, e.g. the first noun phrase in The robbers tied his feet together with a black cord

FE configuration
a group of core FEs realized in one sentence

frame (semantic frame)
A schematic representation of a situation involving various participants, props and other conceptual roles, each of which is a frame element

frame element (FE)
frame-specific defined semantic role that is the basic unit of a frame

frame semantics
a descriptive framework for characterizing lexical meaning in terms of semantic frames

full inheritance
all frame elements in a parent frame have an analog in the child frame, though not necessarily of the same name

grammatical function (GF)
describes the ways in which constituents in a sentence satisfy abstract grammatical requirements of the target word

in-frame
an example sentence illustrating a sense of a target that belongs to the frame currently under consideration

indefinite null instantiation (INI)
an FE that is missing whose identity is not retrievable, but whose type is usually know (e.g. the FE TOPIC in Bob and Sue would argue all day, exemplifying the QUARREL sense of the verb argue

inheritance
a frame-to-frame relation in which the child frame elaborates the parent frame; the child frame is said to be a "kind-of" parent frame, e.g. Arriving is a kind-of Motion

lemma
a unit made up of one or more lexemes seen as bearing one or more senses, e.g. bringing up consists of the lexemes bring and up

lexeme
a word in a given part of speech instantiated by one or more word-forms, e.g. the lexeme bring has the word forms bring, brings, bringing, brought

lexical entry
the syntactic realization of the frame elements and the valence patterns of a lexical unit

lexical unit (LU)
a pairing of a lemma and frame - i.e. a "word" taken in one of its senses, e.g. the verb tie in the Attaching frame

modifier (mod)
a grammatical function used for modifiers of heads, e.g. the adjective in the phrase delicious meal, or the adverb in the phrase quite remarkable

monotonic inheritance
inherited characteristics cannot be overridden

multi-word expression (MWE)
a lexical unit that consists of more than one lexeme, e.g. take off, pediatric hematologis, April Fool's Dar, day in day out

multiple inheritance
a child frame (and therefore its FEs) can have any number of parents

noun compound
a noun consisting of two (or more) nouns, e.g. wine bottle, kitchen door

null instantiation
a missing frame element

out-of-frame
an example sentence illustrating a sense of a target that belongs to a different frame than the one currently under consideration

phrasal verb
a verb that consists of more than one lexeme, e.g. take off, tie up, throw out

prop
any inanimate entity that figures into the description of a scene characterized in a frame, e.g. the FE CONNECTOR in the ATTACHING frame

see-also
a frame-to-frame relation that points from each of a group of frames to another frame whose definition includes a detailed discussion of the differences among the individual frames in the group

semantic prosody
the general semantic trend or tone of a clause that is "prosodic" in that it stretches over whole phrases or passages and concerns semantic features that are not usually thought of in talk about "selection"

semantic type
a mechanism used to capture semantic facts about individual frames, FEs, and LUs that don't fit into the developing hierarchy of frames in FrameNet

semantic valence
the frame that underlies the meaning of a word, and the number and kinds of entities that participate in the situation instantiating the frame

subcorporation
the automatic processes used to extract example sentences for annotation from the corpus (e.g. BNC, American newswire, or other)

subcorpus
an automatically generated corpus of sentences, extracted from the corpus, the selection of which is based on predetermined syntactic specifications

subframe
a frame-to-frame relation whereby (smaller) component frames comprise parts of a (larger) complex frame

support verb
semantically neutral verb that turns a target noun into a verb phrase-like predicate and allows for the expression of a frame element as its subject, e.g. make, as in make a decision

syntactic valence
the number and type of syntactic constituents that are dependent on, or in construction with a word

target
the lemma under consideration, and in respect to which annotation is provided

transparent noun
a noun occurring in first position in a "Noun+of+Noun" construction indicating type, measure, group, etc., which is "transparent" to selection or collocational requirements in the context: thus to split this kind of hair is an instance of the split...hair idiom in spite of the intervening noun kind

uses
a frame-to-frame relation like Inheritance, but less strictly defined

valence
the particular kinds of constituents, in terms of semantic roles, grammatical functions, and phrase types, with which a word combines in a grammatical sentence

valence group
one frame element together with its grammatical realization (phrase type and clause function) in the sentence

valence pattern
the set of valence groups realized in one sentence

word form
an inflectional variant (e.g. bring, brings, bringing, and
brought are word forms of the lexeme bring
LocalWords: INI multi